Multi Agro Impex | Singapore | Timber Logs Supplier

Timber Terms

Air-dried timber (A/D): Timber dried by exposure to air in a yard or shed, without artificial heat.

Kiln Dried (K/D): Of timber, seasoned in a kiln usually to a specified or selected moisture content.

Log: part of the trunk or a large branch of a tree that has fallen or been cut off.

Lumber: A North American synonym for timber.

Moisture content (M/C): The weight of moisture contained in a piece of timber expressed as a percentage of the oven dry weight.

Hardwood: A general term for timber of broad leafed trees classified botanically as Angiosperm. The term has no reference to the relative hardness of the wood. Technically, hardwoods are woods from trees classed as 'flowering' plants as opposed to conifers. The timber of conifers is known as softwood. Some 'hardwoods' such as balsa are soft; some 'softwoods' such as yew are very hard.

Ply: One layer of a laminated sheet.

Plywood: An assembled product made up of veneers of timber glued together so that the grain of alternate layers is at right angles.

Pin Borer: of various small beetles that bore minute holes into trees; esp : an ambrosia beetle (Monarthrummali) that attacks apple trees.

Pinholes: Small round pinholes, up to 3 mm (1/8”) in diameter are usually the work of an insect known as the ambrosia beetle. The damage occurs when the adult beetle bores into the wood carrying a tiny fungus spore with it. It deposits the spore in the wood tissue and as the spore develops it causes deep staining on the walls of the bore hole.

Pitch: Pitch is an accumulation of resinous material. This is unsuitable for certain grades of lumber because of appearance requirements. Pitch may be present in streaks or pockets.

Rough sawn: Surface condition of wood as it leaves the saw, i.e. not dressed or final sawn. Round timber: Timber used in the original round form, such as in poles, posts or bridge beams.

Round timber: Timber used in the original round form, such as in poles, posts or bridge beams.

Saptain/ Blue stain: Bluing, blue stain or sapstain are terms used to describe wood that shows blue to greyish-black stains on its surface, caused by wood-staining fungi. Sapstain is considered a fault in timber and will be taken into account when sorting.

Sawn timber: Timber finished to size with a saw.

Softwood: A general term for timber of trees classified botanically as Gymnosperm. Commercialtimbers of this group are nearly all conifers. The term has no reference to the relative hardnessof the wood.

Veneer: A thin layer or sheet of wood.

Banking Terms

Accepting Bank: Bank which accepts a bill of exchange by countersigning (endorsing) it, and thus incurs the legal obligation of paying the bill's amount on its maturity date. See also advising bank.

Account Party: Entity (usually an importer) who applies to a bank to establish a letter of credit (L/C) in favor of another entity (the 'accredited party' or 'beneficiary,' usually an exporter). However, where a finance company applies for a L/C on behalf of an importer, the finance company is usually called the 'applicant' and the importer is called the 'account party.' Also called accountee or applicant.

Beneficiary: Person or other legal entity for whose present or future interest (benefit) an annuity, assignment (such as a letter of credit) , contract, insurance policy, judgment, promise, trust, will, etc., is made.

Bill of lading (B/L): B/L that is free from any adverse remarks or notations (called 'clauses'), made by the shipping company about the condition, packaging, or quantity of the goods being shipped. Importers and their banks usually insist on a clean B/L for payment under a letter of credit.

Buyer's credit: Buyer's credit is the credit availed by an importer (buyer) from overseas lenders, i.e. banks and financial institutions for payment of his imports on due date. The overseas banks usually lend the importer (buyer) based on the letter of comfort (a bank guarantee) issued by the importers bank. Importer's bank or Buyers Credit Consultant or importer arranges buyer's credit from international branches of a domestic bank or international banks in foreign countries. For this service, importer's bank or buyer's credit consultant charges a fee called an arrangement fee.

Certificate of Origin: Document that certifies a shipment's country of origin. It is used between members of a trading block or where special privileges are granted to goods produced in certain countries. Certificate of origin is commonly issued by a trade promotion office, or a chamber of commerce in the exporting country. Also called declaration of origin.

Documents against payment : An arrangement under which an exporter instructs the presenting bank to hand over shipping and title documents (see document of title) to the importer only if the importer fully pays the accompanying bill of exchange or draft. Also called cash against documents.

Issuing Bank: Buyer's or importer's bank which establishes (opens) a letter of credit (L/C) in favor of a beneficiary (seller or exporter), forwards it to an advising bank for delivery to the beneficiary, and commits itself to honor demand drafts drawn by the beneficiary against the amount specified in the L/C. Also called opening bank.

Letter of credit (L/C): A written commitment to pay, by a buyer's or importer's bank (called the issuing bank) to the seller's or exporter's bank (called the accepting bank, negotiating bank, or paying bank). A letter of credit uarantees payment of a specified sum in a specified currency, provided the seller meets precisely-defined conditions and submits the prescribed documents within a fixed timeframe.

Negotiation: Trading: Process by which a negotiable instrument is transferred from one party (transferor) to another (transferee) by endorsement or delivery. The transferee takes the instrument in good faith, for value, and without notice of any defect in the title of the transferor, and obtains an indefeasible title.

Negotiating Bank: In documentary credit, usually the beneficiary's bank which agrees to pay the beneficiary by purchasing a negotiable instrument (importer's or buyer's draft). Also called accrediting party.

Telegraphic Transfer T/T: T/T. A method of payment in which funds are transferred via telegraph or cable. Telegraphic transfers are most common in business conducted in developing countries, where other types of infrastructure, such as computerized payments, may not be available.

Measurment Terms

Hoppus Method:
                   L  x  ( ( 3.14 x D x 3.14 x D)/16)
     VOLUME    =   ------------------------------------
     (M 3)                      10000

                L = Length in Meter
                D = Diameter in CM

Indian Method:
                     L x  ( ( 3.14 x  D x 3.14 x D)/16)
      VOLUME    =   -------------------------------------
       (CFT )                     144

                L = Length in FT ( 1 M = 3.281 FT )
                D = Diameter in INCH ( 1 CM = 0.3937 IN )

Indonesian Method:
                      L x D x D x 0.7854
      VOLUME    =   -------------------------
       (M 3)                      10000

                L = Length in Meter
                D = Diameter in CM

      D =( DA + DB )/2    

                DA = (Shortest Dia + Perpendicular Dia)/2
                DB =(Shortest Dia + Perpendicular Dia)/2

Sabah Method:
                      L x D x D x 0.7854
      VOLUME    =   ----------------------
       (M 3)               10000

                L = Length in Meter
                D = Diameter in CM

      D =( DA + DB )/2

                DA  =  Diameter of one end
                DB  =  Diameter of second end

Sarawak Method:
                       L  x  D x D x 0.7854
      VOLUME    =   --------------------------
       (M 3)                      10000

                L = Length in Meter
                D = Diameter in CM


Green Policy

Trading in woods is a sensitive matter. We often see in the media images of forest destruction particularly in the tropics, with timber companies cast as the main culprits. One thing that is certain is that the environment in general and forest ecosystems in particular are very complex. We at MAI are very conscious of the need to support the efforts of our Suppliers to operate under the principles of sound forest management. MAI is a signatory and firm supporter of the environmental balance which commits members to responsibly source their timber requirements and monitor their supplier’s environmental performance. One thing is for sure, it is only a strong forestry industry operating with sound forest management (however certified or verified) that will endow the forests with sufficient economic value to preserve them for the future. We buying woods from sustainable forests or plantation and other environmental friendly resources.

Selangun Batu
Kwila Logs
MDF Board
Southern Yellow Pine
Spruce Logs
Fir Logs
Mora Logs
Teak Logs
Gmelina Logs
Spruce Logs
Sylvestris Pine
New Zealand
Radiata Pine